Articles & Reviews

Authored by RSF Research Staff

Super Massive Black Holes Spin Near the Speed of Light

Scientists using the new NuStar telescope and the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton telescope, have recently determined that the supermassive black hole called NG1365 is spinning at an extreme speed of 85% of the speed of light or 670 million miles per hour. This galaxy is located 60 million light years from earth and has a black hole at its center that is 2 million times the mass of the sun.

Black Hole ADJ(Photo: NASA/JPL)

This research project utilized x-ray emission fluorescence produced by the reflection of hard X-rays off the inner edge of the accretion disk. The x-rays are produced in the region outside of the black hole as iron molecules are excited in the chaotic region outside of the event horizon. As debris and areas of higher density in the accretion disc pass through the x-ray emissions at a distance of 2.5 times the gravitational or Schwarzschild radius from the center point, the period of the rotation can be determined and therefore the speed of rotation can be estimated. The presence of the rapidly rotating region around this black hole expands our knowledge of black holes the presence of which has only been verified in the last few decades. The fact that some black holes are now known to rotate at relativistic speeds also increases our understanding of the dynamics and physics of black holes. When Karl Schwarzschild first offered his famous solution to Einstein’s Field Equations in 1916, the concept of a black hole was thought to be purely theoretical with no real examples in our universe. We now have found black holes at the center of all observed galaxies and other structures and the study of black holes has become a significant effort in the field of physics recently. Black holes offer a rich area of study since they are often immense objects, they can be very simple in their structure. Some theorize that only the size and spin of a black hole is needed to completely describe their nature, although no information is available on the internal structure of these enigmatic objects. Black Hole Cross section ADJ Nassim Haramein for many years has been publicly theorizing that black holes are present at the center of every galaxy, possibly in the center of each star, and that black hole physics are possibly at the heart of the atom nuclei, the proton. His paper, The Schwarzschild Proton, theorized that the gravitational attraction of black holes the size of a proton can be responsible for nucleon confinement by overcoming the presence of a strong electrostatic repulsion field. In his most recent paper, Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, Haramein demonstrates that that gravitational field has a very short range at the quantum level, and is not felt outside of the nucleus. The extreme or relativistic speeds of rotation of the subatomic particles may be responsible for the dilated mass of the particles and the source of the extremely strong gravitational fields. The recent discovery of the relativistic speed of rotation of the matter on the outside of the black hole has added a greater understanding of the physics of black holes and has validated Haramein’s theories of the presence and behavior of these very interesting phenomenon.

By: Dave Gerow

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