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New evidences showing that black holes are controlling star formation

At first, black holes were only a theoretical solution to Einstein's theory of gravity. They were inevitable under some circumstances. It is in the early 1960s with the discovery of quasars in 1963 that black holes became a reality for astrophysicist. Nowadays it is taken for granted that black holes do exist in at least two different forms. Scientists think stellar mass black holes are the endpoint of the death of some stars, and supermassive black holes are the result of coalescences in the centers of most galaxies, including our own.

However, as Nassim Haramein showed in his theory black holes are far more than just large vacuum in space sucking all their surroundings. In fact, the equations from the Haramein-Rauscher solution for the Einstein equation are showing that these astrophysical objects are producing more matter than they absorb. And interestingly, a recent article published in Nature on the 1st of January 2018 is pushing the idea that black holes are the main actor in the formation of the galaxies.

Nassim Haramein speech on black holes at the last delegate gathering in December 2017:

 

The team led by Ignacio Martín-Navarro from University of California Observatories discovered the role of black holes studying the dynamic of galaxies. We know supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun are inhabiting the centers of all massive galaxies. The problem is how these supermassive black holes interact with star formation in our local Universe.

Dispersion relation between black-hole mass and stellar velocity. The stellar velocity dispersion of galaxies (σ) tightly correlates with the mass of their supermassive black hole (M•).

A way to solve this question is by observing the velocities and the mass of these objects. In fact, the mass of supermassive black holes (M•) scales with the stellar velocity dispersion (σ) of their host galaxies. Interestingly, this graphic is showing that over-massive black-hole galaxies have central black holes more massive than expected, whereas under-massive black-hole galaxies host relatively light supermassive black holes. The distinction between these two types of galaxy allows us to evaluate the role of black-hole activity in star formation, as the amount of energy released into a galaxy is proportional to the mass of the black hole.

This is the first direct observational evidence where we can see the effect of the black hole on the star formation history of the galaxy.

Jean Brodie, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz

From this study, researchers reported that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. These results indicated that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

There are different ways a black hole can put energy out into the galaxy, and theorists have all kinds of ideas about how quenching happens, but there's more work to be done to fit these new observations into the models.

Aaron J. Romanowsky, University of California Observatories

Investigating the connection between star formation and blackhole activity has been one of the biggest observational challenges. These last results have used the relation between black-hole mass and star formation histories to show that the evolution of star formation in massive galaxies over cosmic time is driven by black-hole activity. It is leading to a new approach where there may be a causal origin for the observed scaling relations between galaxy properties and black-hole mass.

Continue reading at: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-supermassive-black-holes-star-formation.html

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