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New flaw in the dark energy theory

The dark matter and dark energy theory is currently failing very rapidly like we reported in a recent news. Several of the most promising novel approaches to explaining the “missing matter” of the universe have been presented but all are failing; see for instance the report on galaxies in a superfluid vortex, where alternative models like modified Newtonian gravity and the Haramein-Rauscher spacetime spin solution to general relativity are discussed.

The problem of the dark matter, noticeably raised decades ago by the dynamical studies of clusters of galaxies and by the flat rotation curves of galaxies, is still resisting to explanations. An impressive variety of exotic particles has been proposed in order to account for dark matter, and also theories of modified gravity like the MOND theory. Another theory worth to be reconsidered could be based on some basic physical invariances of the gravitation theory. In fact these physical invariances are essential. For example, a physical invariance is Einstein's theory of Special Relativity; after postulating that two things are constant — the observed speed of light, and physical laws in uniformly moving reference frames — logical consistency makes it necessary that some properties will be relative (length, time, velocity, mass,...) but other properties will be constant (proper length, proper time, rest mass,...). Similarly, the Maxwell equations in absence of charge and currents are scale invariant, while the equations of General Relativity are not.

It is known that a general scale invariance of the physical laws is prevented by the presence of matter, which defines scales of mass, time and length. However, the empty space at large scales could have the property of scale invariance, since by definition there is nothing to define a scale, even if this assertion is questionable at a quantum level. Thus, it could be possible that the properties of the empty space are scale invariant. In a recent paper, André Maeder from the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland explored this hypothesis of the scale invariance of the macroscopic empty space.

This work showed an accelerated cosmic expansion after the initial stages and satisfy several major cosmological tests without the need for any unknown particle or factors. Based on the weak field approximation, they found a small outwards acceleration in Newton’s equation particularly significant for very low density systems. Applied to clusters of galaxies like Coma and Abell 2029 clusters, they calculated dynamical masses about a factor of 5 to 10 smaller than in the standard case. Even the two-body problem is solved with this new approach leaving no place to the dark energy, nor the dark matter.

The announcement of this model, which at last solves two of astronomy's greatest mysteries, remains true to the spirit of science: nothing can ever be taken for granted, not in terms of experience, observation or the reasoning of human beings.

André Maeder. Geneva Observatory, Switzerland

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