**Science News**

###### Curated by RSF Research Staff

# The Planck photon rocket

Espen Gaarder Haug is a physicist applying unified physics approaches to solving the problems of conventional physics. Similar to the quantum gravitational solutions of Nassim Haramein, Haug has worked out quantized solutions of the gravitational constant and relativistic equations using Planck units. Using Planck values for the gravitational constant simplifies and quantifies a long series of equations in Newton's and Einstein's conception of gravity, which could offer new calculations in Haramein's holographic mass solutions to further the delineation of quantum gravity.

In Haug's latest work published in Acta Astronautica, he calculates the maximum velocity of a fundamental particle with rest mass. By combining the relativistic rocket equation (essentially considering an accelerating fundamental particle as the smallest possible rocket) with a theoretically derived maximum velocity for particles, it is found that maximum velocity is achieved from two Planck masses regardless of the particle's starting rest mass (a Planck mass is approximately 4.34 x 10^{-9 } kg, this is far larger than the proton rest mass of around 1.67 x 10^{-27}kg). In other words, the particle "rocket" requires two Planck masses of fuel to reach terminal velocity, at which point the Einstein relativistic mass of the particle is always equal to the Planck mass.

One interesting consequence of this finding is that any subatomic particle when accelerated to its maximum velocity will become a Planck particle. At this point the particle is probably absorbed back into the vacuum (joining all of the other Planck particles). This means that for an actual rocket ship, it will have a maximum speed dependent on the maximum velocity of the heaviest subatomic particle of which it is comprised.

Considering protons to be the fundamental particle of which the rocket ship is comprised, there will be a maximum velocity of 2.95 X 10^{-41} less than c for a rocket with maximum efficiency, which is a photon rocket (for comparison, the Large Hadron Collider has a maximum particle speed around 2.6 X 10^{-7} less than c).

Accordingly:

"The maximum amount of fuel needed for any fully-efficient particle rocket is equal to two Planck masses. This amount of fuel will bring any subatomic particle up to its maximum velocity. At this maximum velocity the subatomic particle will itself turn into a Planck mass particle and likely will explode into energy. Interestingly, we need no fuel to accelerate a fundamental particle that has a rest-mass equal to Planck mass up to its maximum velocity. This is because the maximum velocity of a Planck mass particle is zero as observed from any reference frame. However, the Planck mass particle can only be at rest for an instant. The Planck mass particle can be seen as the very turning point of two light particles; it exists when two light particles collide. Haug’s newly-introduced maximum mass velocity equation seems to be fully consistent with application to the relativistic rocket equation and it gives an important new insight into the ultimate limit of fully-efficient particle rockets"

Article: http://vixra.org/pdf/1701.0319v1.pdf

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