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Curated by RSF Research Staff

A more precise measurement of the proton’s magnetic moment

Precise knowledge of the properties of the proton, such as its mass (charge radius, and magnetic moment, lifetime), put parameters for precise calculations in quantum electrodynamics. While the standard model is having difficulties to give a concrete understanding of the Nature of the proton and of its characteristics, Haramein’s theory on the contrary are performing surprisingly very well. Using pure geometry and logic, the model of the Schwarzschild Proton and the one of Holographic mass of the proton are giving an accurate insight of the nature, the dynamics and the values of properties of the proton such as the mass or the anomalous magnetic moment. However, measurements remain a key to improve the current knowledge and to confront the existing models. Few months ago, the measurement of the proton charge radius has drawn attention with a paper contributing in solving the discrepancy in the proton charge radius measurements. Called the proton-radius puzzle, this problem was due to the difference between results obtained with muonic hydrogen compared to them measured with electronic hydrogen. Recently more insights were obtained for the proton magnetic moment.

When the proton is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque. The torque exerted then produces a change in angular momentum which is perpendicular to that angular momentum, causing the magnetic moment to precess around the direction of the magnetic field rather than settle down in the direction of the magnetic field. This phenomenon is called Larmor precession.

The proton acts as if it is a single entity with intrinsic angular momentum. This is a nuclear magnetic moment which produces magnetic interactions with its environment. High-precision measurements of these properties are essential to investigate fundamental symmetries such as CPT (charge, parity, and time-reversal) symmetry. It could provide essential input in understanding the observed baryon asymmetry in our universe, which can’t be explained by the Standard Model of particle physics and cosmology.

To move forward in particle physics, we require either high-energy facilities or super precise measurements. With our work we are taking the second route, and we hope in the future to do similar experiments with antiprotons using the same technique. This will allow us to get a better understanding of, for example, atomic structure.

Measurement setup and cycle. (A) Magnetic field on axis with magnetic bottle in the analysis trap. (B) Sectional cut through the cylindrical copper electrodes of the double–Penning trap system. Each trap is connected to detectors to measure the proton eigenfrequencies. (C) Flow diagram of the measurement cycle.

The team led by Georg Schneider reported on a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton. The result, µp = 2.79284734462 (±0.00000000082) µN, had a fractional precision of 0.3 parts per billion. It improved the previous best measurement by a factor of 11, and is consistent with the currently accepted value. This was achieved with the use of an optimized double–Penning trap technique. Provided a similar measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment can be performed, this result will enable a test of the fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter in the baryonic sector at a very precise level.

"Looking forward, using this technique, we will be able to make similarly precise measurements of the antiproton at the BASE experiment in CERN, and this will allow us to look for further hints for why there is no antimatter in the universe today."

Andreas Mooser from Institut für Physik in Germany.

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